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Autism Spectrum Disorder

With 1 in 36 children now identified with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), many families have questions and concerns about how ASD is diagnosed, what are the effective treatments, and what the prognosis looks like. Usually, your childs pediatrician is the first to notice that your child may be showing symptoms of developmental problems. Your pediatrician may complete a quick screening checklist, such as the MCHAT, or may simply refer or recommend that you seek a formal assessment. The next challenge? Finding a provider who is qualified and available to conduct a formal assessment. The average wait time to schedule an assessment in Maryland is up to 14 months. Assessments often include parents completing symptom checklists, interactive play and social interaction sessions with the examiner, and computer assisted identification of ASD.  Social, communication, emotional and behavioral skills must be carefully assessed, and there is a huge variety of symptoms such that no two children diagnosed with ASD are alike (hence, the spectrum of skills).

Treatment for ASD should be individualized based on the specific needs and circumstances of each person, and they may evolve over time as symptoms change and new strategies are explored. Regular monitoring and collaboration between healthcare providers, educators, and families are essential for effective treatment of ASD. Treatment may include
Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention with children under 5 years of age, which includes shaping desired behavior and using positive reward strategies; Speech and Language Therapy to help improve their communication skills; Occupational Therapy to help develop skills necessary for daily living, such as self-care, fine motor skills, sensory processing, and social skills; and Social Skills Training to teach social cues, conversation skills, perspective-taking, and other social skills necessary for interacting with peers and navigating social situations. Specialized education programs in schools can help children with autism thrive academically and socially in school settings, and parents training in behavior management techniques, communication strategies, and understanding ASD can empower parents to support their child's development effectively.


It is crucial that your child be assessed as soon as possible. Children as young as 18 months can be reliably diagnosed, and once diagnosed, treatment should begun immediately. Studies have indicated that children who receive appropriate treatment beginning before the age of 2 or 3 years have a significant likelihood of substantially reducing the impact of ASD, learning critical age-appropriate skills, such as communication skills, social interaction skills, and self-management skills. 


Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), like Autism Spectrum Disorder, is also a neurodevelopmental disorder. ADHD commonly manifests in childhood but can persist into adolescence and adulthood. It is characterized by patterns of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that significantly interfere with development, daily functioning, education, work and relationships.

​Assessment of ​ADHD relies on clinical interviews, direct observations, and standardized assessment tools to evaluate symptoms and their impact on functioning.  It may involve rating scales completed by parents, teachers, or individuals themselves to assess the presence and severity of ADHD symptoms across different settings.  Cognitive testing may be conducted to rule out other conditions. 

Treatment of ADHD may include Stimulant Medications (such as methylphenidate, amphetamines) and Non-Stimulant Medications (such as atomoxetine, guanfacine). These medications can help improve attention, reduce impulsivity, and control hyperactivity. However, medication is not suitable for everyone, and its use should be carefully monitored by healthcare professionals. Behavioral Interventions, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavior modification techniques, can help individuals with ADHD develop coping strategies, organizational skills, and impulse control. Parents of children with ADHD may benefit from Parent Training Programs designed to teach effective parenting strategies and behavior management techniques. Individuals with ADHD often benefit from accommodations in educational settings, such as extended time on tests, preferential seating, or alternative assignments. Adequate sleep, regular exercise, a balanced diet, and minimizing exposure to environmental stressors can also help manage ADHD symptoms.

Behavior Risk
Behavior Risk

A Behavior Risk Assessment is a systematic evaluation conducted to identify potential risks associated with an individual's behaviors. It aims to assess the likelihood of certain behaviors posing harm to themselves or others, as well as the factors contributing to these behaviors.


Behavior risk assessments often include Structured Interviews to gather additional information about the individual's behavior patterns, triggers, stressors, coping mechanisms, and support systems; Structured Observations of the individual's behavior in various settings may also be conducted to assess their functioning and interactions with others; and Standardized Questionnaires to gather quantitative data about the individual's behavior, emotional functioning, cognitive abilities, and risk factors. These assessment tools can provide valuable insights into the severity of symptoms, presence of specific risk factors, and areas of concern.

Behavior risk assessments play a crucial role in informing clinical decision-making, treatment planning, and risk management strategies to promote the safety and well-being of individuals at risk of harmful behaviors. It is important for assessments to be conducted by qualified professionals with expertise in behavioral assessment and risk management, adhering to ethical guidelines.

Memory & Learning

Early diagnosis and timely intervention are crucial for optimizing outcomes and improving the quality of life for individuals with memory impairments, ushc as Dementia. A multidisciplinary approach involving healthcare professionals, caregivers, and support services is essential for comprehensive dementia care. Dementia is a syndrome characterized by a decline in cognitive function, affecting memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgment. Dementia is not a specific disease but rather a group of symptoms caused by various underlying conditions, the most common of which is Alzheimer's disease. Other causes include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and others.

Assessing dementia involves gathering medical history to rule out reversible causes of cognitive decline, and identify any underlying medical conditions; standardized cognitive tests, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) to assess various cognitive domains, including memory, attention, language, and visuospatial abilities; mental health assessment to evaluate mood disorders, such as depression or anxiety, which can coexist with dementia and exacerbate symptoms; and an assessment of the individual's ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs).

Treatment options include prescribed Medications to manage symptoms and slow disease progression; Cognitive Stimulation Therapy may help improve cognitive function, enhance well-being, and reduce behavioral symptoms.

Occupational, Speech, and Physical therapies can help individuals maintain independence, improve communication skills, and address mobility issues. Support groups, counseling, and psychotherapy can provide emotional support, education, and coping strategies for individuals with dementia and their caregivers. Environmental Modifications can help create a safe and supportive environment, minimizing distractions, and implementing routines can help reduce confusion and agitation in individuals with dementia. Encouraging regular physical activity, a balanced diet, social engagement, and cognitive stimulation can promote overall well-being and potentially slow cognitive decline.

Intellectual Disabilities

Intellectual Disability is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. These limitations manifest during the developmental period and impact multiple areas of functioning, such as communication, self-care, social skills, and academic achievement. Intellectual disability is typically diagnosed in childhood and varies in severity, ranging from mild to profound.


Individuals with Intellectual Disability typically have below-average cognitive functioning, as measured by standardized assessment tests. This includes difficulties with reasoning, problem-solving, abstract thinking, and learning new information. These individuals also have weaknesses in adaptive behaviors, the practical skills necessary for daily living, such as communication, self-care, socialization, and independent living skills. They may also show problems in understanding and using language, difficulty understanding social cues, forming and maintaining relationships, and regulating emotions are typical features of intellectual disability, poor academic performance, and difficulty retaining and recalling information, learning new skills, and applying knowledge in different contexts.


A comprehensive assessment is conducted to evaluate intellectual functioning, adaptive behavior, and developmental history.

Standardized intelligence tests, such as the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) or the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, are administered to assess cognitive abilities and determine intellectual functioning. Rating scales, questionnaires, and direct observations are used to evaluate adaptive behavior in various domains, including communication, self-care, socialization, and community living skills.


Early Intervention Programs, including speech therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, and developmental interventions, are crucial for optimizing developmental outcomes and addressing areas of delay in young children with intellectual disability. Individualized Education Plans (IEPs) and specialized educational services are provided to children and adolescents with intellectual disability to address their unique learning needs and promote academic and functional skills development. Behavioral Interventions, such as applied behavior analysis (ABA), social skills training, and behavior management techniques, help individuals with Intellectual Disability learn new skills, improve adaptive behavior, and reduce challenging behaviors. Support Services, including vocational training, job coaching, supported employment programs, and community-based services, help individuals with Intellectual Disability achieve independence, social inclusion, and meaningful participation in society. Advocating for the rights and inclusion of individuals with Intellectual Disability in society, promoting access to healthcare, education, employment, and community services, and combating stigma and discrimination are essential for promoting the well-being and autonomy of individuals with intellectual disability.

Overall, a multidisciplinary approach involving healthcare professionals, educators, therapists, social workers, and families is essential for providing comprehensive care and support to individuals with intellectual disability across the lifespan. Effective interventions and support services can help individuals with intellectual disability achieve their full potential, lead fulfilling lives, and participate actively in their communities.

Emotional Support Animals
Emotional Support Animals

Emotional Support Animals (ESAs) are animals that provide comfort, companionship, and therapeutic benefits to individuals with mental health conditions. While they differ from service animals in that they are not trained to perform specific tasks, ESAs can offer emotional support and alleviate symptoms of anxiety, depression, PTSD, and other psychological disorders. Individuals seeking an ESA typically undergo an assessment by a licensed mental health professional, such as a psychologist. This assessment involves discussing the individual's mental health history, symptoms, and treatment needs.  Psychologists can evaluate the individual's condition to determine if the presence of an ESA would provide therapeutic benefits and alleviate symptoms of the mental health disorder.

ESAs provide companionship, comfort, and unconditional love to individuals experiencing emotional or psychological distress. Their presence can help reduce feelings of loneliness, anxiety, and depression. Interacting with an emotional support animal can promote relaxation, stress reduction, and a sense of well-being, which may help individuals cope with symptoms of their mental health disorder. ESAs can help regulate emotions and provide a calming influence during times of heightened anxiety or stress. Their presence can help individuals feel more grounded and emotionally stable. Engaging in activities with an ESA, such as petting, grooming, or playing, can release endorphins and oxytocin, which are neurotransmitters associated with mood enhancement and stress relief. Caring for an emotional support animal can provide a sense of purpose, routine, and responsibility, which can be beneficial for individuals struggling with mental health disorders. Establishing a daily care routine for the ESA, including feeding, grooming, and exercise, can help individuals maintain structure and stability in their lives. ESAs can facilitate social interaction and connection with others, as they often serve as conversation starters or icebreakers in social settings. Taking an ESA for walks or participating in animal-assisted therapy programs can provide opportunities for socialization and connection with others, which can be particularly beneficial for individuals with social anxiety or isolation.

Through the bond formed with their ESA, individuals may develop coping skills, resilience, and a sense of empowerment in managing their mental health disorder. Learning to recognize and respond to the emotional cues of their ESA can help individuals develop greater self-awareness and emotional regulation skills.

It's important to note that ESAs are not considered service animals under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and do not have the same legal rights and protections as service animals. However, they may be granted housing and travel accommodations under the FHA and ACAA with proper documentation from a licensed mental health professional. Additionally, while emotional support animals can offer valuable therapeutic benefits, they are not a substitute for professional mental health treatment, and individuals with mental health disorders should continue to receive appropriate care from qualified healthcare providers.

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